The Pelham is a bit that provides additional action on the poll. Pressure is applied to the lower jaw bones by the use of a curb chain. In a way the Pelham is a combination of a Weymouth and a bradoon.
Pelhams can be used with one or two reins. Using two reins the main snaffle rein gives direct pressure to the tongue and the bars. The second rein attached to the lower ring puts pressure onto the horses poll preventing him from tossing the head, thus getting him to lower his head. If a horse lowers his head too much to evade the contact the curb chain should come into play at a maximum angle of 45.
Many people choose to use Pelham roundings to avoid using two reins especially cross country or showjumping. Stubben have introduced a modern take on the Pelham rounding the Pelham Bit Converter.
Much lighter and easier to attached the Pelham Converters are only 15cm in length (in comparison to the usual Pelham straps which are generally 30cm) and made from fine webbed nylon rope which loops around the bottom ring and the leather strap with billet is fixed to the top ring. The reins are then simply attached to the new loop. The action from using the rein is much more direct and clear and also much quicker with a lot less play.